Platelet-Rich Plasma Applications and Reference Articles

There are many applications for the use of platelet gel in the clinic, office, or operating room. Click on each heading below to learn how platelet gel can be a valuable tool for use in each of the following specialties:


  • Face, Neck and Brow Lifts
  • Endoscopic Brow Blepharoplasty
  • Facial Laser Procedures
  • Breast Reconstruction, Reduction, Mammoplasty, and Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (TRAM) Flap
  • Abdominoplasty
  • Cranio-Facial Reconstruction
  • Non-Healing Wounds
  • Large & Small Fat Transfers

Related Reference Articles:

  • Man Daniel, Posker Harvey, Winland-Brown, Jill E., The Use of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (Platelet Gel) and Autologous Platelet-Poor Plasma (Fibrin Glue) in Cosmetic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2001; 229-239.
  • NewsEdge, Modulations of tissue In-growth Into Porous High-Density Polyethylene Implants With Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Autologous Blood Clot, Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2000;2:27-33.
  • Green, D.M., Platelet Gel as an Intraoperatively Procured Platelet-Based Alternative to Fibrin Glue, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1998; 101:1161-1162.
  • Man, D., A South Florida Plastic Surgeon, Increases Wound Healing Through Innovative Surgical Procedure Patient's Blood Used to Produce Gel That Increases Wound Healing and Decreases, HeadsUp, June, 1999.
  • Welsh, William J., Platelet Gel Usage in Cosmetic Surgery, American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, January 27,2000.
  • Lorenz, H. Peter, et al, The Impact of Biomolecular Medicine and Tissue Engineering on Plastic Surgery in the 21st Century, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2000; 2467-2481.
  • Kron, Joan, Everything you always wanted to know about plastic surgery but were afraid to ask, Allure, 2000; 174-179:199-200.
  • Tram Flap Breast reconstruction with Expanders and implants, AC Journal, 2000;VOL. 71.
  • Welsh, William J., Autologous Platelet Gel - Clinical Function and Usage in Plastic Surgery, Cosmetic Dermatology, July 2000; 13-18.
  • Adler, Stephen C., Autologous Platelet Gel in Facial Platic Surgery, 2000; 1-8.
  • Carroll, Camilla M.A., Carroll Sean M., et al, Augmentation of Skeletal Muscle Flap Survival using Platelet Derived Growth Factor, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 1998; Volume E102 No. 2, 407-415.
  • Petrauskas Julia, contributing editor, Platelet Gel Promotes Enhanced Wound Healing, Cosmetic Surgery Times, Nov/Dec 2000.
  • Rieman Patty, contributing editor, Platelet-Rich Plasma Reduces Bleeding, Speeds Healing, Cosmetic Surgery Times, October 2000.
  • Guttman Cheryl, contributing editor, Autologous Platelet Gel Reduces Facelift Recovery Time, Cosmetic Surgery Times, April 2000.
  • Abuzeni Patick Z., Alexander Robert W., Enhancement of Autologous Fat Transplantation with Platelet-Rich Plasma, American Journal of Cosmetic Surgery, Vol 18, No. 2, 2001.
  • Marchac, D., Sandor, G., Face Lifts and Sprayed Fibrin Glue: An Outcome Analysis of 200 Patients, BrJ Plastic Surg, 1994; 47:306-309.



  • Rhinoplasty
  • Thyroidectomy
  • Parotidectomy
  • Accoustic Neuroma
  • Head & Neck Cancers
  • Tympanoplasty
  • Fixation of Cartilage, Bone, or Artificial Implants
  • Dura and Facia Grafting
  • Skin Graft Fixation
  • Local Hemostasis in Patients with Bleeding (Tonsillectomy, Adenoidectomy, Mucous Membrane Defects)
  • Septorhinoplasty
  • Cleft Lip Repair



  • Total Joint Replacement (Hips/Knees)
  • Spinal Fusion
  • Laminectomy
  • Fractures, Non-Union/Bony Defects

Related Reference Articles:

  • Carter, Gordon, Home Study Program - Harvesting and Implanting Allograft Bone, AORN Journal, 1999; 70:659-676.
  • Arm, D.M., et al, Effect of Controlled Release of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor from a Porous Hydroxyapatite Implant on Bone Ingrowth, Biomaterials, 1996; 17:703-709.
  • Hannon, et al, Perioperative Multicomponent Pheresis in Children Undergoing Spinal Surgery, Anesthesia and Analgesia, 1998; 86S;S402.
  • Blais et al, Efficacy of Autotransfusion in Spine Surgery: Comparison of Autotransfusion Alone with Hemodilution and Apheresis, Spine 1996; 21(23):2795-2800.
  • Autologous Growth Factors Extracted to Stimulate Bone Healing, Orthopedics Today, AACS.
  • Kevy Sherwin V., Jacobson Mary S., An Automated Cost-Effective Methodology for the Preparation of Growth Factor Enriched Autologous Platelet Gel, 4th Annual Orthopedic Tissue Engineering Meeting, April 2000, Boston, MA.
  • Pekka Mooar A., et al, The Efficacy of Autologous Platelet Gel Administration in Total Knee Arthroscopy: An Analysis of Range of Motion, Hemoglobin, Narcotic Requirements, AAOS 67th Annual Meeting, March 15-19, 2000, Poster Exhibit PE148.
  • Slater Michael, et al, Involvement of Platelets in Stimulating Osteogenic Activity, Journal of Orthopedic Research, Vol13 No.5, 1995, 655-663.
  • Lind, et al, Growth Factors: Possible New Clinical Tools, ACTA Orthop Scand, 1996; 67(4):407-417.
  • Whitman, D.H., et al, A Technique for Improving the Handling of Particulate Cancellous Bone and Marrow Grafts Using Platelet Gel, Journal of Oral-Maxiofacial Surgery, 1998:45:1217-1218.
  • Joyce, M.E., Jingushi, S., Bolander, M.E., Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in the Regulation of Fracture Repair, Orthop Clin North Am, 1990; 21:199-209.
  • Noda, M., Camilliere, J.J., In Vivo Stimulation of Bone Formation by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta, Endocrinology, 1989; 124:2991-2994.
  • Andrew, J.G., Hoyland, J.A., Fremont, A.J., Marsh, D.R., Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Expression in Normally Healing Human Fractures, Bone, 1995; 16(4):455-460.
  • Beck, L.S., Ammann, A.J., Aufdemorte, T.B., et al, In Vivo Induction of Bone by Recombinant Human Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1, J Bone Miner Res, 1991; 6:961-968.
  • Lind, M., Schumaker, B., Soballe, K., et al, Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Enhances Fracture Healing in Rabbit Tibiae, Acta Orthop Scand, 1993; 64:553-556.
  • Nielson, H.M., Andreassen, T.T., Ledet, T., et al, Local Injection of TGF-Beta Increases the Strength of Tibial Fractures in the Rat, Acta Orthop Scand, 1994; 65:37-41.
  • Sumner, D.R., Turner, T.M., Purchio, A.F., et al, Enhancement of Bone Ingrowth by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta, J. Bone Joint Surg (Am), 1995; 77:1135-1147.
  • Einhorn, T.A., Current Concepts Review: Enhancement of Fracture Healing, J. Bone Joint Surg, 1995, 77A:940-956.
  • Marx, R.E., Platelet Concentrate: A Strategy for Accelerating and Improving Bone Regeneration, Special Chapter Reprint from Bone Engineering (Ed. J.E. Davies); 2000.  Published by EM Squared, Inc., Toronto, Canada.



  • Mandibular Reconstruction/Bone Grafts
  • LeFort Fractures (Guerin's Fracture)
  • Sinus Lifts/Naso-Alveolar Repair
  • Dental Implants

Related Reference Articles:

  • Petrungaro, Paul S., The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma with Growth Factor (Autologous Platelet Gel) to Enhance Hard and Soft Tissue Healing and Maturation in Surgical Implant Dentistry, Contemporary Periodontics and Implantology, November 2000, Volume 1, Issue 8.
  • Marx, Robert E., et al, Platelet-Rich Plasma Growth Factor Enhancement for Bone Grafts, Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, June 1998, Vol. 85, No. 6:638-646.
  • Petrungaro, Paul S., Using Platelet-Rich Plasma to Accelerate Soft Tissue Maturation in Cosmetic Periodontal Surgery, Contemporary Periodontics and Implantology, Summer 2001, Volume1, Issue 10.
  • Arm, D.M., et al, Effects of Controlled Release of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor from a Porous Hydroxyapatite Implant on Bone Growth, Biomaterials, 1996; 17:703-709.
  • Sonnleitner, D., Huerner, P., Sullivan, D. Y., A Simplified Technique for Producing Platelet-Rich Plasma and Platelet Concentrate for Intraoral Bone Grafting Techniques: A Technical Note, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 2000; 15:879-882.
  • Lozada, Jaime R., et al, Platelet Rich Plasma Application In Sinus Graft Surgery:  Part I - Background And Processing Techniques, Clinical, 2001; 38-42.
  • Kassolis, John D., Rosen, Paul S., Reynolds. Mark A. Alveolar Ridge and Sinus Augmentation Utilizing Platelet-Rich Plasma in Combination with Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft Case Series, J. Periodontal, 2000; 1654-1661.
  • Froum, Stuart J., Tarnow, Denis P., Wallace, Stephen S., Rohner, Michael D., Cho, Sang-Choon, Sinus Floor Elevation Using An Organic Bovine Bone Matrix (OsteoGraf/N) With and Without Autogenous Bone; A Clinical, Histologic, Radiographic, and Histomorphometric Analysis - Part 2 of an Ongoing Prospective Study, The International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry, 1998; 529-544.
  • Tyler, Stephen A., Office Based Harvest of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Intraoral Bone Grafting, Poster 34, AAOMS, 2000.
  • Marx, R.E., et al , Platelet-Rich Plasma - Growth Factor Enhancement for Bone Grafts, Oral Radiol Endod, 1998; 85:638-646.
  • Marx, Robert E., Platelet-Rich Plasma - A Source of Multiple Autologous Growth Factors for Bone Grafts, Tissue Engineering - Applications in Maxillofacial Surgery and Periodontics, 71-82.
  • Marx, Robert E., Garg, Arun K., Bone Structure, Metabolism, and Physiology: Its Impact on Dental Implantology, Implant Dentistry, 1998; 7:267-276.
  • Garg, Arun K., Chapter 5 - Grafting Materials in Repair and Restoration, Tissue Engineering - Applications in Maxillofacial Surgery and Periodontics, 83-101.
  • Garg, Arun K., Platelet-Rich Plasma to Enhance Pro-Prosthetic Bone Grafts, Dental Implants and Periodontics, Dental Implantology Update, June 2000; 11:41-44.
  • Garg, Arun K., et al, The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma to Enhance the Success of Bone Grafts Around Dental Implants, Dental Implantology Update, March 2000; 11:17-20.
  • Garg, Arun K., et al, Using Platelet-Rich Plasma to Develop an Autologous Membrane for Growth Factor Delivery in Dental Implant Therapy, Dental Implantology Update, June2000; 11:41-44.
  • Artzi, Z., Carlos, Newmcovsky, C., The Application of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral for Ridge Preservation Prior to Implantation.  Clinical and Histological Observations in a Case Report, Journal of Periodontol, 1998; 69:1062-1067.
  • Whitman, D.H., et al, A Technique for Improving the Handling of Particulate Cancellous Bone and Marrow Grafts Using Platelet Gel, Journal of Oral Maxiofacial Surgery, 1998; 45:1217-1218.
  • Whitman, D.H., et al, Platelet Gel: An Autologous Alternative to Fibrin Glue with Applications in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 1997; 55:1294-1299.
  • Ashman, Arthur, Ridge Preservation - The Future Practice of Dentistry, Dental Economics, 1995; 80-83.
  • Misch, Craig M., Misch, Carl E., Chapter 31- Intraoral Autogenous Donor Bone Grafts for Implant Dentistry, Contemporary Implant Dentistry, 2nd ed., 497-508.
  • Landesberg, R., et al, Quantification of Growth Factor Levels Using a Simplified Method of Platelet-Rich Plasma Gel Preparation, Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, 2000; 58:297-300.
  • Stefani, C.M., Machado, M. A. N., Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/Insulin- Like Growth Factor-1 Combination and Bone
    Regeneration Around Implants Placed Into Extraction Sockets: A Histometric Study in Dogs, Implant Dentistry, 2000; 126-130.
  • Nemcovsky, Carlos E., Serfaty, Vidal, Alveolar Ridge Preservation Following Extraction of Maxillary Anterior Teeth. Report on 23 Consecutive Cases, Journal of Periodontal, 1996; 67:390-395.
  • Seibert Jay S., Salama, Henry, Alveolar Ridge Preservation and Reconstruction, Periodontology 2000, 1996; 11:69-84.
  • Gross, Jeffry, Ridge Preservation Using HTR Synthetic Bone Following Tooth Extraction, General Dentistry, 1995; 364-367.
  • Abernathy, W., et al, Nonmetallic Fixation in Elective Maxillofacial Surgery, AORN Journal, 2000; 71:193-198.
  • Landesberg, R., et al, Risks of Using Platelet Rich Plasma Gel, Journal of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, 1998; 56:1116-1117.
  • Lekovic, V., et al, Preservation of Alveolar Bone in Extraction Sockets Using Bioabsorbable Membranes, Journal Of Periodontal, 1998; 69:1044-1049.
  • Bell, Dewey, Particles Versus Solid Forms of Hydroxyapatite As A Treatment Modality To Preserve Residual Alveolar Ridges, The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 1986; 56:323-326.
  • Hoen, M., et al, Preserving the Maxillary Alveolar Ridge Contour Using Hydroxylapatite, JADA, 1989; 118:739-741.
  • Bahat, 0., et al, Preservation of Ridges Utilizing Hydroxyapatite, The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, 1987; 35-41.
  • Quin, J., et al, Preservation of the Alveolar Ridge With Hydroxylapatite Tooth Root Substitutes, JADA, 1985; 110:189-193.
  • Sclar, A., Preserving Alveolar Ridge Anatomy Following Tooth Removal In Conjunction With Immediate Implant Placement - The Bio-Col Technique, Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, 1999,7:39-59.
  • Sclar, A., Use Of The Epithelialized Palatal Graft With Dental Implants, Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, 1999, 7:79-94.
  • Peleg, Michael, Mazor, Ziv, Garg, Arun K., Augmentation Grafting of the Maxillary Sinus and Simultaneous Implant Placement in Patients with 3 to 5 mm of Residual Alveolar Bone Height, The International Journal Of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 1999; 145-156.
  • Murray, Christopher G., Adkins, Ken F., The Elective Retention of Vital Roots for Alveolar Bone Preservation - A Pilot Study, J. Oral Surgery, 1979; 650-656.
  • Loo, Wallace D., Ridge Preservation with Immediate Treatment Dentures, Immediate Dentures for Ridge Preservation, 1968; 5-11.
  • Quinn, J., Kent J., Alveolar Ridge Maintenance With Solid Nonporous Hydroxylapatite, The International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry, 1987; 35-41.
  • Rosenberg, Edwin S., Torosion, James, Sinus Grafting Using Platelet- Rich Plasma - Initial Case Presentation, Pract Periodont Aesthet Dent, 2000; 12(9):843-850.



  • Hepatic Lobectomy/Wedge
  • Pancreatic Surgery/Whipple Procedure
  • Enterocutaneous Fistulas
  • Mastectomy/Axillary Dissection
  • Liver Resection
  • Hernia Repair
  • Splenectomy
  • Gastrectomy
  • Whipple Procedure
  • Laproscopic Cholecystectomy
  • Vein Stripping
  • BKA
  • AKA



  • Craniotomy
  • Crainoplasty
  • Transphenoidal Hypophysectomy
  • Pituitary Tumor
  • Dural Repair
  • LP Shunt/Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak
  • Burr Holes

Related Reference Articles:

  • Stover, E.P., et al, Intraoperatively Prepared Platelet Gel as an Alternative to Fibrin Glue in Dural Wound Repair, Transfusion, 1996; 36:46S.
  • Hood, et al, Preoperative Autologous Sequestration III: A new Physiologic Glue with Would Healing Properties, Proceedings of the American Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion, 1993;14:126.



  • Hemi-Nephrectomy
  • Retroperitoneal Tumor
  • Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
  • Nephrectomy
  • Prostatectomy



  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm/AFB
  • Carotid Endarterectomy
  • Vascular Access Grafts



  • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
  • Valve Repair/Replacement
  • Bronchopleural Fistula
  • Aneurysm Repair
  • Sternal Repairs
  • Cardio-Thoracic Redo Surgery

Related Reference Articles:

  • Weatherford, D.A., Sackman, J.E., Reddick, T.T., et al, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Heparin in a Biologic Glue Promotes Human Aortic Endothelial Cell Proliferation with Aortic Smooth Muscle Inhibition, Surgery, 1996; 120:433-439.
  • Allen, K.B., Griffith, G.L., Heimansohn, D.A., et al, Endoscopic versus Traditional Saphenous Vein Harvesting: A Prospective Randomized Trial, Ann Thorac Surg, 1998; 66(1):26-31.



  • Decubitis Ulcers
  • Venostasis Ulcers
  • Diabetic Foot Ulcers
  • Spider Bites

Related Reference Articles:

  • Pierce, G.F., et al, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB and Transfusing Growth Factor Beta1 Selectively Modulate Glycosaminoglycans, Collagen, and Myofibroblasts in Excisional Wounds, American Journal of Pathologists, 1991; 138:629-646.
  • Robson, M., et al, Recombinant Human Platelet-derived Growth Factor-BB for the Treatment of Chronic Pressure Ulcers, Annals of Plastic Surgery, 1992; 29:193-201.
  • Pierce, et al, Role of Platelet Derived Growth Factor in Wound Healing, Journal Cellular Biochemistry, 1991; 45:319-326.
  • Pierce, et al, Detection of Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF-AA) in Actively Healing Human Wounds Treated with Recombinant PDGF-BB and Absence of GDGF in Healing Wounds, Journal Clinical Investigation, 1995; 96:1336-50.
  • Knighton, D.R., et al Role of Platelets and Fibrin in the Healing Sequence, Annals of Surgery, 1982; 196;379-388.
  • Folkman, J., Is There a Field of Wound Pharmacology?, Annals of Surgery, 1992; 244:1-2.
  • Ksander, G.A., et al, The Effect of Platelet Release on Wound Healing in Animal Models, Journal of American Academy of Dermatology, 1990; 22:781-791.
  • Knighton, D.R., et al, Stimulation of Repair in Chronic, Nonhealing, Cutaneous Ulcers Using Platelet-Derived Wound Healing Formula, Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 1990; 170;56-60.
  • Knighton, D.R., et al, Classification and Treatment of Chronic Nonhealing Wounds:  Successful Treatment with Autologous Platelet-Derived Wound Healing Factors (PDWHF), Annals of Surgery, 1986; 204:322-330.
  • Steed, et al, Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor for the Treatment of Lower Extremity Diabetic Ulcers, Diabetic Ulcer Study Group, Journal Vascular Surgery, 1995; 21(1):71-8; discussion 79-81.
  • Krupski, William C., et al, A Prospective Randomized Trial of Autologous Platelet-Derived Wound Healing Factors for Treatment of Chronic Nonhealing Wounds: A Preliminary Report, Journal of Vascular Surgery, 1991; 14:526-536.
  • Wieman, T.J., et al, Efficacy and Safety of a Topical Gel Formulation of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-BB (Becaplermin) in Patients with Chronic Neupropathic Diabetic Ulcers, Diabetes Care, 1998; 21:822-827.
  • Martin, P., et al, Growth Factors and Cutaneous Wound Repair, Progress in Growth Factor Research, 1992; 4:25-44.
  • Hosegood, Giselle, Wound Healing - The Role of Platelet Derived Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factor Beta, Veterinary Surgery, 1993; 22,6,490-495.
  • Stein, Jill, Special to DG News, Autologous Platelet Gel Effectively Treats Diabetic Plantar Wounds.
  • Wilson, Fred, Gel Preparation Rapidly Heals Diabetic, Venous Stasis, Pressure Ulcers, Dermatology Times, April 2000.
  • Devel T.F., Senior R.M., Huang J.S., Grifan G.L., Chemotaxis of Monocytes and Neutrophils to Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Journal Clin Invest, 1982; 69:1046-1049.
  • Rabson C., Martin G.R., Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB for the Treatment of Chronic Pressure Ulcers, Lancet, 1992; 339:23-25.
  • Atri S.C., Mirsa J., Bisht D., Mirsa K., Use of Homologous Platelet Factors in Acheiving Total Healing of Recalcitrant Skin Ulcers, Surg, 1990; 108(3):508-512.
  • Pierce, Glenn F., Tissue Repair and Growth Factors, Encyclopedia of Human Biology, 1991, Volume 7, 499-509.
  • Aminian B., et al, The Role of the Autologous Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in the Management of Decubitus Ulcers, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
  • Aminian B., et al, Topical Autologous Platelet-Derived Growth Factors in the Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Ulcers, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
  • Hood, A.G., Hill, A.G., Reeder, G.D., Perioperative Autologous Sequestration III: A New Physiologic Glue with Wound Healing Properties, Proc Am Acad Cardiovasc Perf, 1993; 14:126
  • Glover, J.L., Weingarten, M.S., Buchbinder, D.S., et al, A 4-Year Outcome-Based Retrospective Study of Wound Healing and Limb Salvage in Patients with Chronic Wounds, Adv Wound Care, 1997;10(1):33-38.
  • Breuing, K., Andree C., Helo, G., et al, Growth Factors in the Repair of Partial Thickness Porcine Skin Wounds, Plast Reconst Surg, 1997; 100(3):657-664.



  • Macular Hole Repair

Related Reference Articles:

  • Moxham, J.P., et al, TGF-beta1 Forms Functionally Normal Bone in a Segmental Sheep Tibial Diaphyseal Defect, Journal Otolaryngol, 1996; 25(6):388-392.
  • Korobelnik, J.F., et al, Autologous Platlet Concentrate as a Adjunct in Macular Hole Healing, Ophthalmology, 1996, 103:590-594.
  • Gehring, S., et al, Preparation of Autologous Platelets for the Ophthalmologic Treatment of Macular Holes, Transfusion, 1999; 39:144-148.
  • Gehring, S., Hoerauf, H., Laqua, H., Kirchner, H., Kluter, H., Preparation of Autologous Platelets for the Ophthalmologic Treatment of Macular Holes, Transfusion, 1999; 144-148.